Human beings depend tremendously on the electrical supply. All of our equipments are generally driven by power. The most important form of energy is electricity. It is required in driving various devices & machines. So, we can say that electricity is the most promising fuel that is widely used in several applications.
In order to minimize the losses, the electricity is transferred at very high voltage. So, to use it at domestic or at industrial level, there is necessary that the voltage level should be brought down to a lower level. Electrical transformers are the devices that are used for the purpose of stepping up & stepping down of the voltage level. These are basically of two types one is the step up configuration while the other one is the step down configuration. In a step up configuration, the voltage level is brought down to a significant level so that it can be used for domestic purposes. In the step up configuration, the voltage level is raised to a level so that it can be used for industrial purposes.
The main assembly of the electrical transformers are core, winding & cooling process. Based on these elements, its performance is figured out. The information related to the construction of these elements is listed below.
Core: To manufacture these highly permeable material is used. As various losses are associated with these devices, so highly permeable material helps in providing a low reluctance path to the flux. The low reluctance path minimizes the losses that are associated with the flux. The most preferred choice of material that is used for this purpose is stainless steel. This metal has the permeability greater than that of air which helps tremendously in reducing leakage or losses. The width of the laminated sheets is crucial in the functioning of these devices. So, for that purpose, their thickness has been reduced from 0.5mm to 0.25mm. These are also provided with the varnish, oxide or phosphate coating in order to offer durability.
Winding: This is a very vital element of any electrical transformer. These are basically the turns of the wires that play a crucial role in the application. The stepping up or down of voltage depends on the number of turns. Generally, more turns are offered to the high voltage side while less number of turns are offered to the low voltage side. Copper wire is basically used for this purpose.
Cooling aspects: Cooling of transformers is essentially important for their long life & effective operation. The low rating transformers are provided with the air cooled option. In this, no special measures are taken in order to provide cooling. The high rating is provided with the oil cooling. In this, the oil is used to reduce the effects of the heat. Sometimes forced oil cooling is provided to these.