A few nice temperature indicator images I found:
Gaggia Baby – 1996 – purchase price 9.00 – Barnies Coffee, Palm Beach Gardens Mall.
Image by MarkGregory007
Front cover of the instructions booklet for a Gaggia Baby manufactured in 1994. The booklet is printed in several languages. Gaggia was an international company from Italy.
The Gaggia company was founded in 1947 and formally incorporated in 1948. It first produced machines for commercial use, but in 1977 it produced its first machines for home use, which has become its dominant area of production.
The company continues to produce quality espresso machines and accessories. As of 2010, all Gaggia espresso and coffee machines are still manufactured in Milan at the Robecco sul Naviglio factory.
The Gaggia company was purchased in 1999 by Italian competitor Saeco International Group, which in turn was purchased by Dutch manufacturer Philips in 2009. Gaggia still operates a separate line but now is using Saeco designs in some of its domestic espresso machines.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING ESPRESSO WITH THIS PARTICULAR MODEL (which likely also applies to all Gaggia Baby machines)
GETTING THE MACHINE READY
Fill water reservoir with water.
Turn power switch on (power indicator light comes on).
Make sure hot water switch is off, if you hear a noise, the pump is on.
Prime the pump by placing a small frothing pitcher under the steam wand and turn on the
hot water/brew switch. You will hear the sound of the pump.
After a few seconds, a steady stream of water will emerge from the steam nozzle. Allow about
1 cup of water to fill the pitcher.
Shut off the steam/hot water/brew switch.
At this point the Baby Gaggia has been primed.
Follow the above instructions allowing about 6 minutes for the machine to reach proper
Select the correct filter basket and insert in filter holder.
Small basket is for one cup of espresso, larger is for two.
Insert the filter into the brew head and attach it to the machine for warm up.
After the warm up period remove the filter and fill it with ground espresso.
"Gently" tamp down the coffee with your tamper.
Do not compress the coffee too firmly.
Clean excess coffee from the rim of the holder.
Insert filter holder into brew head and move handle firmly to the right to lock into position.
Place one or two espresso cups on the drip plate to line up with spouts.
Turn on the hot water/brew switch.
Espresso will begin flowing.
When cups are 3/4 full (20-25 seconds) turn off the brew switch.
When properly made, the espresso will have a light brown foam on top called crema.
To make more espresso, remove filter and repeat process. Note that there will be some water dripping from the brew head as filter holder is removed.
ABOUT GAGGIA machines on YouTube: www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_a8XH9uhbI
This type of machine in operation: www.youtube.com/watch?v=k61QJWGJ3EE
Apollo Portable Life Support System (PLSS) Backpack
Image by rocbolt
Portable Life Support System (PLSS) A Life Giving Backpack
A lunar astronaut’s space suit provided the protective cocoon for his survival against the extreme conditions of the Moon, but it was his backpack that would provide his life-giving atmosphere.
Called the PORTABLE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM – or PLSS (pronounced "pliss") – this large, 65 pound backpack supplied a moon walking astronaut with his life blood of oxygen, atmospheric pressure, water, temperature control, and communications.
A masterpiece of engineering, the PLSS was a self-contained, self-powered, rechargeable environmental control system. Even though it only contained 15-minutes of oxygen, it was capable of expanding nearly eight hours by cleansing the carbon dioxide with a lithium hydroxide canister contained in the PLSS. It precisely controlled the internal suit temperature to 70°F, even though the outside temperature of the Moon fluctuated nearly 500°F between light and dark. The PLSS controlled humidity, and contained a VHF communication system capable of allowing the astronaut to talk to his fellow moon-walker, the pilot in the orbiting Command Module, or with Mission Control in Houston. It also transmitted the astronauts medical status from data collected from his bio-belt unit, which had sensing devices attached to several of the astronaut’s body points. All was accomplished on less electricity than it takes to power the light bulb in your refrigerator.
On later Apollo missions, when several lunar excursions were made during each mission, the astronauts were able to hook the PLSS into the systems of the Lunar Module and completely recharge the unit for another eight hours of life. The backpacks were left behind on the lunar surface at the conclusion of each mission in an effort to maximize the amount of moon rocks and other samples the astronauts were able to return.
The Magic of the PLSS
The magic of the astronaut’s Portable Life Support System (PLSS) was that it was able to do so much in such a small package.
Besides supplying oxygen, water, electrical power and communications, as well as controlling temperature and humidity, the PLSS incorporated an ingenious process to remove heat from the suit. Called sublimation, excess body heat that accumulated in the suit was absorbed by circulating water through the astronaut’s liquid cooling garment that he wore next to his skin. The warmed water then was passed through a heat exchanger comprised of a nickel-metal plate exposed to the vacuum of space. The heat was effectively pulled away from the PLSS by the conditions of the space environment. This process of sublimation developed for the Apollo backpack, was later evolved into heat pump systems used for heating and air-conditioning in millions of American homes.
The Remote Control Unit (RCU)
The Remote Control Unit was used by the astronaut to monitor and control the PLSS backpack and was attached to the front of the space suit
Located on this unit were a fan switch, pump switch, communication mode selector switch, volume control, PLSS oxygen quality indicator, five status indicators and a level device to activate the emergency oxygen device OPS unit) located on the top of the backpack. Additionally, the RCU also incorporated a camera bracket on the front.
Oxygen Purge System (OPS)
Attached to the top of the PLSS is a separate unit called the Oxygen Purge System, or OPS.
The OPS unit can be manually activated by the astronaut in an emergency situation in case the PLSS backpack develops problems. The unit is a self-contained, independently powered, high-pressure emergency oxygen system that provides up to 30 minutes of breathing supply. The OPS consists of two interconnected spherical high-pressure oxygen bottles, an oxygen pressure regulator, a battery and check-out instrumentation, automatic temperature control module, an oxygen pressure regulator, a battery and check-out instrumentation.
During the last three missions to the Moon (Apollo 15, 16 and 17), the Command Module Pilot made trans-Earth EVA to retrieve film canisters from the Service Module. During the EVA he wore on the back of his space suit the OPS unit retrieved from one of his colleague’s PLSS units before it way discarded on the Moon. The unit provided the same form of emergency backup to the space-walking astronaut in case a problem developed in his primary life support umbilical line.
Also mounted to the top of the OPS is the astronaut’s primary VHF communication antenna that transmitted voice communications and metabolic data.
Image by Felip1
I have often thought that a more reliable indicator than temperature of how I will feel when I step outside the door is light level. (I especially do not care to be told what the wind chill is: I dress when I am outside.) I think it would be great for the morning radio weather guy to tell me something like, "And this morning it is five stops down from bright sun." Or, "It’s a real EV16 kind of day, today!" Or, "With clouds moving along in those high winds, you can expect the light to be changing rapidly from bright sun, down to three or four stops below that and back up again." Wouldn’t that be good?
This was 2007-expired Konica Minolta VX200 film in my Rollei Giro 28. The film was a gift from a friend, along with a dozen other rolls.