Some commonly faced disorders

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Pulmonologyis the forte of medical science dealing with the problems related to respiratory tracts. In some countries, pulmonology is referred chest medicine and respiratory medicine. It is also considered as the branch of internal medicine and related to internal medicine. Pulmonology often comprises of dealing with patients who want life support and mechanical ventilation. Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections.

A pulmonologist is a physician who skills in the field of pulmonary medicines. S/he cures breathing disorders, and also specializes in some treatment of sleep disorders, acute allergies along with some other lung conditions and chronic diseases. Many pulmonologists also sub-specialize in critical care medicine and treating patients in the ICU. A pulmonologist firstly evaluate patient and then start with the diagnostic process. The evaluation process focuses on heredity diseases affecting the lungs such as cystic fibrosis, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, exposure to toxins like tobacco smoke, asbestos, exhaust fumes and coal mining fumes, exposure to infectious agents like certain types of birds and malt processing, an autoimmune diathesis that might predispose to certain conditions like pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension.

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Physical diagnosis is equally important in pulmonology as any other medical field. Inspection of the hands for signs of cyanosis or clubbing, chest wall, and respiratory rate, Palpation of the cervical lymph nodes, trachea and chest wall movement, Percussion of the lung fields for dullness or hyperresonance, Auscultation (with a stethoscope) of the lung fields for diminished or unusual breath sounds, Rales or Rhonchi heard over lung fields with a stethoscope.As many heart diseases can give pulmonary signs, a thorough cardiac investigation is usually included.

Radiology is the branch of medical science that involves the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies (such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical imaging is usually carried out by the radiographer or radiologic technologist.

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Rheumatology is a sub-specialty in internal medicine and pediatrics, dedicated to identification and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Clinicians who focus in rheumatology are called rheumatologist. Rheumatologists deal mainly with clinical problems involving joints, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, vacuities, and heritable connective tissue disorders. Rheumatology is rapidly evolving medical specialty, with advancements owing largely to new scientific discoveries related to immunology of these disorders.

A rheumatologist is a physician specialized in the field of rheumatology and holds either a board certification after specialized training after attaining a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.). The number of years allocated for specialized training in rheumatology for postgraduate trainees in different countries could vary according to the requirements of different countries. Rheumatologists are internists or pediatricians who are qualified by additional postgraduate training and experience in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles and bones. Many rheumatologists also conduct research to determine the cause and better treatments for these disabling and sometimes fatal diseases. Treatment modalities are based on scientific research, currently, practice of rheumatology is largely evidence based. Clinicians who specialize on this specialty are called Rheumatologists.

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